How deep should you squat? The effect of squat depth on muscle activity

(10-22-2013) Proper technique during an exercise is veryStrongman squat important for good training results. This especially holds true for free weight exercises such as the squat. An important part of exercise technique is the Range of Motion (ROM). To see what the effect of squat depth is on muscle activation during the squat exercise, researchers performed the following study.

Effect of training volume on strength and muscle size

(03-06-2013) Increasing muscle mass is a commonDumbbell curl goal for many men training in gyms. There are many variables to consider when designing a training program aimed at increasing muscle mass. One of these variables is the amount of sets or series per exercise. Most research on the matter recommends performing three sets per exercise over one, except for those just starting with strength training. The difference in recommendation between beginners and more advanced athletes is difficult to explain, and researchers from Japan claim it is due to differences in study design and subjects characteristics. To find out the effect of training volume on strength and muscle size the Japanese scientists performed a very innovative study.

Rest between sets for stronger muscles

(11-07-2013) The effects of strength or resistance trainingResting between sets depend on different factors such as training intensity, training volume, exercise type and the amount of rest between sets. Although most strength training research focusses on training intensity and volume, less research has been performed on different rest protocols. Scientists from Texas bundled their forces with researchers working for the US Military and the Marine Corps to study the effects the amount of rest between sets. Two protocols were studied: a classic muscle hypertrophy resting protocol and an intraset resting protocol.  

Fast or slow weight loss: which is better?

(11-15-2014) According to current guidelines for dietitians it Lose weight and fat effectivelyis better to lose weight in a slow gradual manner than losing it quickly to maintain weight loss. Because there is hardly any scientific basis for this recommendation Australian scientists started a large scaled study to the effects of the rate of weight loss on weight maintenance. This article describes their research, results and their conclusions on which is better: fast or slow weight loss.

Effects of interval training on endurance and heart mass

(12-19-2013) Interval training is Spinningincreasingly done to improve endurance or lose weight effectively. Research has shown that it is more effective in those areas than regular endurance training at moderate intensity. There are however different forms of interval training. Researchers from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency and the Universities of Tsukuba and Kyoto have performed a study in which the effects of interval training using two different protocols are compared to endurance training at a moderate intensity.

Squat vs. Leg Press: Effects on Testosterone, Growth Hormone and Cortisol

(Originally posted on 22-04-2014) WhetherSquat vs leg press training with free weights is more effective than training on machines has been an ongoing debate and both methods have their advantages and disadvantages. To see which has the largest effects on our hormones scientists of the University of North Texas started a study on the effects of two of the most popular leg exercises: the squat vs leg press.

Effects of Crossfit

(Originally posted on: 11-18-2013)

Crossfit is a very popular form of fitness training Effects of Crossfitwhich aims to improve all aspects of fitness. Crossfit constantly varies exercises from Powerlifting, bodyweight exercises and kettlebell training. This is combined with different forms of cardiovascular training. Because Crossfit emerged fairly recently, little research has been performed up until now. Scientists from the Ohio State University therefore performed a study on the effects of Crossfit on aerobic endurance, fat percentage and muscle mass.

Effects of Amino Acid Supplementation and Resistance Exercise on Muscle Adaptation


The purpose of this article is to investigate and evaluate the effects of amino acid supplementation in combination with resistance exercise on muscle hypertrophy and strength. The mechanisms of different processes in protein turnover on which amino acid supplementation has an effect are explored. Amino acid supplementation in combination with resistance exercise increases serum IGF-1 concentrations, decreases testosterone concentrations and leaves myostatin expression unchanged. These processes increase mRNA translation, which results in an increase in hypertrophy and, if resistance training intensity is high enough, in increases in strength. In the end it seems that although not all effects of amino acid supplementation are positive for protein synthesis, the net effect is an increase in protein synthesis.

Dangers of too much belly fat

Dangers of too much belly fat

More than 60% of adults are currentlyToo much visceral fat overweight and the number of people who suffer from lifestyle related disorders such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and is rising rapidly. To make matters worse, in the western world these diseases are among the leading causes of death. Being overweight or obese is often a central factor in developing diabetes, high blood pressure or cardiovascular disease and both body mass index (BMI) and body composition give a good indication to the risk of developing these disorders. In fact the BMI norms were originally developed based on research that found a connection between body weight relative to body height and risk of developing disease.

Dumbbells vs Barbells: Dumbbell Shoulder Press vs Barbell Shoulder Press

Dumbbell Shoulder Press vs Barbell Shoulder Press

Barbells vs Dumbbells

In the first article in the Barbell vs. Dumbbell series we compared the Bench Press with the Dumbbell Press. In this second article in the Barbell vs. Dumbbell series we analyze which variant is the most effective for muscle growth for shoulder muscles: The Military Press (Barbell Shoulder Press) or the Dumbbell Shoulder Press. The Military Press is another classic barbell exercise and an essential part of a weightlifters’ training in which a barbell is pressed from just above shoulder height to above the head with outstretched arms. The Military press is performed while standing, although it is possible to perform it seated and decrease stability requirements. The Dumbbell Shoulder Press is a variant of this exercise but is usually performed while seated. It is perfectly possible to perform this exercise while standing however. Both exercises target the deltoid and triceps brachii muscles. Since both these exercises can be done both seated and standing, the effects of posture and which is more effective will be discussed as well.

Dumbbells vs Barbells: Barbell Bench Press vs Dumbbell Press

Dumbbells vs Barbells

Barbells vs DumbbellsThere is a long standing debate among strength training enthusiasts and professionals over the differences between training with dumbbells or with a barbell. Using similar exercises which version is more effective to gain muscle mass using dumbbells or a barbell?

The most effective chest exercises

There are many different exercises to train the pectoralis major, but what are the most effective chest excercises? For those who want to increase the size of their chest muscles it is important to train all different parts of the pectoralis major. This article reviews which exercises target the different parts of the chest muscle best. In addition, muscle activity of assisting (synergistic) muscles will be reviewed as well.

Tabata training

What is Tabata Training?

Tabata training is a form of high intensity interval training first investigated by the Japanese scientist Professor Izumi Tabata. The first few studies were primarily aimed at enhancing sport performance in athletes using short interval training sessions on a stationary bicycle. Every training consisted of eight 20 second sprints on a stationary bicycle at very high intensity alternated with resting periods of 10 seconds. After the training period endurance (maximal oxygen uptake) increased to a larger extend in the Tabata interval training group, despite the workouts being much shorter, compared with a group that performed regular modrate intensity endurance training for 60 minutes each training.1 Ever since that study, the Tabata interval training protocol has become very popular and is increasingly used to help (professional) athletes get fitter and help people lose weight.

Muscle soreness: Essential for training results?

Muscle soreness often occurs after very intensive workouts or unknown movements. Muscle soreness It is therefore often seen as an indication of an effective workout and by some even as necessary for adaptations in muscle tissue. For this reason many fitness enthusiasts strive to achieve muscle soreness after their workouts, despite the discomforts this will give in daily life. But can muscle soreness be used as an indication for an effective workout and is muscle soreness essential for training results or is it a sign of overload?

The pro’s and cons of different stretching methods

Stretching is often done as a form of warming up before exercise,Stretching methods to decrease the risk of sports injury or to increase the range of motion of muscles and joints. Although there are several different stretching methods, the most performed method is static stretching. Other forms of stretching are balistic stretching, dynamic stretching and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). This article gives an overview of these different stretching methods and their specific advantages and disadvantages and advice when to use them.

How to increase muscle mass effectively

One of the most important reasons for many men to train is to increase their muscle mass and look more athletic. To achieve this goal many different training methods have been tried and much research has been done to determine what works and what is less effective or even counter productive. This article will give you best tips science can give you on how to increase muscle mass effectively.

How to lose weight and fat effectively

Many people exercise to lose fat by exercising to improve their looks and/or their health. Lose weight and fat effectivelyBut more often than not, hardly any fat is lost, people get frustrated and quit training altogether. In response to the rising demand in fat loss, much research has been performed to determine the most effective ways of losing fat. This article will give you best tips science can give you on how to lose weight and fat effectively.

Compound versus isolation exercises

Compound versus isolation exercises: what are the benefits and drawbacks?

Resistance exercise is an excellent way to increase muscle strength and size. In addition, it is often used to improve sports performance. An ongoing debate among fitness professionals, coaches and fitness enthusiasts is about which sort of exercises are most effective, compound or isolation exercises.

Fitness and exercise and multiple sclerosis


Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory condition which damages myelin sheats around the axons of the brain and spinal cord. The myelin sheath improves nerve conduction velocity and is crucial for communication between nerve cells. Damage or demyelination decreases nerve function which can lead to muscle weakness, muscle spasm and ataxia.1 These are some of the more common symptoms of MS, but is can take many different forms.1,2 Scientists have not found the cause of MS, however more evidence is pointing towards that MS is an auto-immune disorder.1 Patients suffering from MS are usually treated with medicines aimed at improving symptoms and physiotherapy or exercise therapy.3,4 The aim of these therapies is maintaining functioning, such as performing everyday tasks.5 Recently more research is performed to the effects of physical training on MS symptoms,4 however a complete overview is still lacking. The aim of this article is to review the effects of different forms of training on MS symptoms.

Fitness and depression

By: Meike de JongDepression


Almost everyone knows someone who is suffering from a mild or more serious form of depression. A depression is a serious psychological mood disorder which is characterised by insomnia, fatigue, change in appetite and a state of low mood.1 Unfortunately the number of people suffering from depression is expected to increase by as much as 10%.2 Treatment of depression usually consists of medication (antidepressants) and psychotherapy. In addition other therapy forms such as light therapy and alternative treatments are often used.3